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what is ethernet in computer network
ETHERNET Ethernet is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area orks (LANs). The name comes from the physical concept of the ether.
It defines a number Of wiring and signaling standards for the Physical Layer of the OSI networking model as well as a common addressing format and Media Access Control at the Data Link Layer.
Ethernet is standardized as IEEE 802 3 The combination of the twisted pair versions of ETHERNET for connecting end systems to the network, along with the fiber optic versions for site backbones, is the most widespread wired ILAN technology.
It has been in use from around 1980 to the present, largely replacing competing LAN standards such as token ring, FDDI, and ARCNET. The following figure shows a 1990s network interface card.
This is a combination card that supports both coaxial-based using a 10BASE2 (BNC connector, left) and twisted pair-based 10BASE-T, using an RJ45 (8P8C modular connector, right).
A Network Interface Card (NIC). Ethernet was originally based on the idea of computers communicating over a shared coaxial cable acting as a broadcast transmission medium. The methods used show some similarities to radio systems, although there are fundamental differences, such as the fact that it is much easier to detect collisions in a cable broadcast system than a radio broadcast.
The common cable providing the communication channel was likened to the ether and it was from this reference that the ETHERNET was derived
Above the physical layer, Ethernet stations communicate by sending each other data packets blocks of data that are individually sent and delivered. As with other IEEE 802 LANs, each Ethernet station is given a single 48-bit MAC address, which is used to specify both the destination and the source of each data packet.
Network interface cards (NICs) or chips normally do not accept packets addressed to other Ethernet stations. Adapters generally come programmed with a globally unique address, but this can be overridden, either to avoid an address change when an adapter is replaced or to use locally administered addresses
Ethernet : The IEEE 802.3 standard defines Ethernet at the physical and data link layers of the OSI network model. Most Ethernet systems use the following: Carrier-sense multiple- access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) for controlling access to the network media.
Use baseband broadcasts: A method for packing data into data packets called frames, Transmit at 10Mbps, 100Mbps, and 1Gbps.
TYPES OF ETHERNET
A 10Base5 : It uses thicknet coaxial cable which requires a transceiver with a vampire tap to connect each computer. There is a drop cable from the transceiver to the Attachment Unit Interface (AIU). The AIU may be a DIX port on the network card. There is a transceiver for each network card on the network.
This type of Ethernet is subject to the 5-4-3 rule meaning there can be 5 network segments with 4 repeaters, and three of the segments can be connected to computers. It uses bus topology. Maximum segment length is 500 Metres with the maximum overall length at 2500 metres. The minimum length between nodes is 2.5 metres. Maximum nodes per segment are 100.
10Base2 : It uses thinnet coaxial cable, uses a BNC connector and bus topology requiring a terminator at each end of the cable. The cable used is RG-58A/U or RG-58C/U with an impedance of 50 ohms. RG-58U is not acceptable. It uses the 5-4-3 rule meaning there can be 5 network segments with 4 repeaters, and three of the segments can be connected to computers.
The maximum length of one segment is 185 meters. Barrel connectors can be used to link smaller pieces of cable on each segment, but each barrel connector reduces signal quality. The minimum length between nodes is 0.5 meters.
10BaseT : It uses Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable. It uses star topology. Shielded twisted pair (STP) is not part of the 10BaseT specification. Not subject to the 5-4-3 rule. They can use category 3, 4, or 5 cable, but perform best with category 5 cable. Category 3 is the minimum. Require only 2 pairs of wire. Cables in ceilings and walls must be plenum rated. Maximum segment length is 100 metres, Minimum length between Hodes is 2.5 metres. Maximum number of connected segments is 1024. Maximum number of nodes per segment is 1 (star topology). Uses RJ-45 connectors.
T0BaseF : It uses Fibre Optic cable. It can have up to 1024 network nodes. Maximum segment length is 2000 metres. It uses specialized connectors for fibre optic. It includes three categories
10BaseFL : It is used to link computers in a LAN environment, which is not commonly done due to high cost.
10BaseFP : It is used to link computers with passive hubs to get cable distances up to 500 meters.
I0BaseFB : It is used as a backbone between hubs.
100BaseT : It is also known as fast Erhernet. It uses RJ-45 connectors. Its Topology is Star. It uses CSMA/CD media access. Minimum length between nodes is 2.5 metres. Maximum number of connected seements is 1024. Maximum number of nodes per segment is 1 (star topology). IEEE802.3 specification.
100BaseTX : It requires category 5 two pair cable. Maximum distance is 100 meters.
10OBaseT4 : It requires a category 3 cable with 4 pair. Maximum distance is 100 metres.
100VG-AnyLAN : It requires a category 3 cable with 4 pair. Maximum distance is 100 meters with cat 3 or 4 cable It can reach 150 metres with cat 5 cable. It can use fibre optic to transmit up to 2000 meters, This Ethernet type supports transmission of Token-Ring network packets in addition to Ethernet packets. IEEE 802.12 specification. It uses demand-priority media access control. The topology is star. It uses a series of interlinked cascading hubs. Uses RJ-45 connectors. The IEEE naming convention is as follows :
1. The transmission speed in Mbps.
2. Baseband (base) or Broadband data transmission.
3. The maximum distance a network segment could cover hundreds of meters.
TYPES OF ETHERNET FRAMES
Ethernet 802.2 : These frames contain fields similar to the Ethernet 802.3 frames with the addition of three Logical Link Control (LLC) fields. Novell NetWare 4.x networks use it.
Ethernet 802.3 : It is mainly used in Novell NetWare 2.x and 3.x networks. The frame type was developed prior to completion of the IEEE 802.3 specification and may nOt work in all Ethernet environments.
Ethernet II : This frame type combines the 802.3 preamble and SFD fields and includes a protocol type field where the 802.3 frame contains a length field. TCP/IP networks and networks that use multiple protocols normally use this type of frames.
Ethernet SNAP : This frame type builds on the 802.2 frame type by adding a type field indicating what network protocol is being used to send data. This frame type is mainly used in AppleTalk networks.
The packet size of all the above frame types is between 64 and 1,518 bytes.
Ethernet Message Formats
The Ethernet data format is defined by RFC 894 and 1042. The addresses specified in the Ethernet protocol are 48 bit addresses.
The types of data passed in the type field are as follows:
1. 0800 IP Datagram
2. 0806 ARP request/reply
3. 8035 RARP request/reply
There is a maximum size of each data packet for the Ethernet protocol. This size is called the maximum transmission unit (MTU). What this means is that sometimes packets may be broken up as they are passed through networks with MTUS of various sizes. SLIP and PPP protocols will normally have a smaller MTU value than Ethernet. This document does not describe serial line interface protocol (SLIP) or point to point protocol (PPP) encapsulation.
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